Category Archives: non-dinosaur

Tylosaurus (Mojo Fun)

Very occasionally, the fossil record allows us a fascinating glimpse into interactions between various extinct animals. Take the “Talkeetna Mountains Hadrosaur” for example. Discovered in Alaska in 1994, it is a juvenile specimen that washed out to sea after its death and eventually sank to the bottom to become fossilized. Preserved toothmarks on the bones suggest that the corpse was scavenged upon by a mosasaur, probably Tylosaurus proriger.

Today’s review will focus on Mojo Fun’s 2010 interpretation of that famous and fearsome mosasaur. As you can see, it’s sculpted with its long tail swinging sharply to the left. This gives the toy a length of around 16 cm. Main colours are dark and light olive green with black eyes, white teeth, and a pale mouth interior with a purple tongue. And for some strange reason, Mojo opted to add a series of medium green and pale pink spots on the flanks, and rather sloppily at that. Needless to say, the toy would have looked much better without them.

The Tylosaurus‘ skin has a fine crisscrossing wrinkle texture all over. The head has the proper conical shape of a mosasaur, although it looks slightly too thick for Tylosaurus and the teeth are too small. The tongue, however, has a forked tip, which is a definite plus. And the tail features a fluke at the end. Granted, it’s more eel-like than shark-like, but it still looks good.

And now let’s address the two elephants in the room. First, as you can see from the comparison photo, the Mojo Tylosaurus bears a very suspicious resemblance to the version from CollectA. I’m generally cautious about tossing around accusations of plagiarism, but in this case, it may well be justified. And second, like its CollectA doppelganger, this Tylosaurus is missing its nostrils. Lame.

Overall, the Mojo Tylosaurus is an okay toy at best. Not the worst rendition I’ve come across, but far from the cream of the crop. Kids will no doubt enjoy playing with it though.

Primeval Predators kit (Royal Ontario Museum)

Like many readers of this blog, one of my favorite things to do when visiting a new city is to check out the local natural history or science museum. For getting a sense of the scale and proportions of ancient life, nothing beats seeing specimens, or even reproductions of specimens, up close and personal. And what better souvenir can you ask for than figurines representing some of the animals you saw during your visit?

Sadly, I’ve never been to Toronto, but I was able to bring a little bit of its Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) to me via the “Primeval Predators” kit, a set of five brightly colored toys representing animals from Canada’s famous Burgess Shale. The Burgess Shale is one of the most famous fossil localities in the world, giving an unparalleled glimpse into Cambrian ecosystems, even preserving creatures with no mineralized tissue that would have decayed too rapidly to fossilize anywhere else. This kind of exceptional environment is called a lagerstätte (pronounced “law-guh[r]-shtay-tuh,” pl. lagerstätten), and the Burgess Shale is the quintessential example. Let’s take a look at these five denizens of Cambrian Canada:

First up is Olenoides serratus, a common trilobite known from over 200 specimens. This figure is about 8.5 cm long, making it approximately life size. It correctly shows the sharp, pointy edges that give it its specific name, as well as the long, thin antennae. The antennae have too few segments, but some simplification for a toy strikes me as acceptable. There are, correctly, seven jointed thoracic segments, as well as several fused segments (collectively, called a “pygidium” or “little rump”). Two threadlike appendages called cerci (sing. “cercus”) emanate from the posterior end of the figure, a feature that distinguishes Olenoides from other trilobites. Some living arthropods also have cerci, which may have sensory or mating functions, but their function in Olenoides is not known. Considering how often trilobite toys are just generically called “trilobite,” ROM deserves praise for making a toy that is a faithful, if stylized, rendition of an identifiable trilobite species.

The big gun in the set is this “Laggania.” The name “Laggania” is no longer in use, having been assigned to a detached circular mouthpart. At first, the disc-like structure was proposed as a possible jellyfish, but it later became clear that it belonged to another animal named in the same exact scientific article: Peytoia. Peytoia is a relative of the ubiquitous Anomalocaris, although it is thought to have been a filter feeder rather than an active predator like its larger relative. Anomalocaris is sort of the Tyrannosaurus of the Cambrian: almost every company that bothers to make Cambrian creatures starts with it. For that reason, it’s refreshing that this set includes a generally ignored relative. This toy shows the “arms” under the head, bearing filaments that would have helped it filter particles of organic matter out of the water. The circular mouth (the “Laggania” part) is just barely visible in this photo. At about 13.5 cm long, this is about 3/4 life size.

If Anomalocaris is the Tyrannosaurus of the Cambrian, Opabinia regalis is the Triceratops. Lots of Opabinia figures exist, although this one may well have been the first, as the information cards that come with these figures all say “© 2000,” which would mean they came out a year earlier than Kaiyodo’s Opabinia. For being over 15 years old, this figure holds up quite well, which is a testament to both the good quality of the toy and the exceptionally good information preserved in the fossils. It has the correct number of segments and a plausibly shaped and oriented anterior appendage. At about 10 cm long, this is about 1.5× life size.

Tiny, wormlike Pikaia gracilens is often of particular interest to people, because it may be a close relative of our direct ancestors. Pikaia has what appears to be a notochord, which humans have as early embryos, later being segmented to become the disks between our vertebrae. It also has pigment spots that were initially interpreted as eyes (the bright red spots on the underside of the figure’s head). These spots have since been reinterpreted, and most paleontologists no longer consider it to have eyes, but this figure was produced before that reinterpretation. The toy also shows the row of tentacles, the one anatomical feature that Pikaia has that is unknown in true vertebrates, and perhaps represents evidence that it was an dead-end offshoot of our early family tree, rather than our direct ancestor. At about 7.5 cm, this toy is about 2× life size.

Finally, we come to Wiwaxia corrugatus, a strange bottom-dwelling animal with scaly armor and spines. The armor was not mineralized, but made out of a hard carbon polymer (hey, the toy is also made of a hard carbon polymer!). It was probably a stem-group mollusc, meaning that all living molluscs are more closely related to one another than to Wiwaxia. The underside had a slug-like foot, with which it crawled along probably eating things out of the mud. This version is about 7.5 cm long, or roughly 2.5× life size.

This set is a really nice cross-section of the diversity present in the Burgess Shale. If the accompanying information cards are correct that these were produced in 2000, then all or most of these are the first figures of their species. However, it also means it’s probably too much to hope that the ROM will make additional sets from other Canadian fossil deposits (such as the phenomenal Ordovician sites in Manitoba). If they were going to make more toys like this, I think they would have done so by now, but as far as I’m concerned, an expansion of the “Primeval Predators” concept would be quite welcome. These toys are stylized, but not quite cartoonish, and brightly colored to the point of being psychedelic–but the Burgess Shale might well have looked pretty psychedelic in life. I’d recommend this set to anyone who likes invertebrates, Paleozoic animals generally, or the very strange. You can still get it directly from the Royal Ontario Museum web site, and presumably in the museum’s gift shop as well.

Remigolepis (Paleozoo)

At first glance, the Late Devonian Gogo Reef might have looked roughly similar to a modern reef: colorful, lively, with piles of calcified stationary organisms hosting all sorts of swimming and crawling creatures. But look a little closer, and the reef isn’t made of scleractinian corals, but instead composed mostly of sponges, mats of algae, and rugose and tabulate corals. There are sharks, but they’re relatively small and slow-moving. There are crustaceans, but no proper crabs or lobsters. Instead, there are sea scorpions (more closely related to spiders than crustaceans). There are no triggerfishes, angelfishes, or parrotfishes. Instead there are lungfishes, coelacanths, and lots of boxy fishes with armor on the front halves of their bodies.

Today’s review concerns a model of one armored fish you might see on a Devonian reef, Remigolepis, a member of a group of primitive jawed fishes called antiarchs. These were mostly small fishes, with extensive head and thorax armor, as well as armored pectoral fins. Probably the most famous member of the group is Bothriolepis. Remigolepis differs from Bothriolepis and other antiarchs in several respects, but the most immediately obvious is the fact that the pectoral fin is short and does not contain a mobile joint. The short, solid fin inspired its name, which means “oar-scale.”

This model, from Australian designer Bruce Currie’s Paleozoo line, is 3D printed in a material called “sandstone,” which is actually gypsum powder treated with a binding agent. This material permits printing in full color, and the Paleozoo line takes full advantage of that feature. The figure is hollow, saving on material and shipping costs. The interior is a glossy black. This is a finely wrought display piece for adult collectors, and not an appropriate item for young children.

This is a nice rendition of Remigolepis, accurately depicting the vaulted box that may have resisted crushing in the jaws of large rhizodonts and arthrodires like Eastmanosteus. The topology of the plates is well-represented here. I might have placed some of the sutures slightly differently, but I think the arrangement here is well within the range of reasonable interpretation of the often somewhat crushed fossils.

The eyes are in a little window up at the front. The small mouth is directed forward and downward (“subterminal” in ichthyology parlance), and the distinctive submarginal plates are picked out in a rosy color, perhaps suggesting a display role.

The overall color scheme is attractive, sort of a pearly lavender color, a bit darker at the plate margins, and livid highlights near the eyes, mouth, and on the leading edge of the pectoral fins. Unlike Bothriolepis, which was mostly naked behind the armor plates, this model features small scales on its tail. It also correctly lacks pelvic fins, a feature which arguably originated in another placoderm lineage. The tail tapers to a feckless point–these were probably not strong swimmers. Their anatomy is instead consistent with a bottom dweller, perhaps relying on retiring habits and its substantial armor for protection from predators.

This model is about 16 cm long, or about 1/2 life size. It likely works well alongside the Bothriolepis from Paleozoo, though I don’t own that particular piece just yet. Scale-wise, it also works well with the much less realistic Yowie Rolfosteus. If I had one wish from the Paleozoo line, it would be for smaller, more affordable versions of some of these species. They are not exorbitant for what they are, especially considering that they come fully colored, but at a lower price point a person could build a great Gogo reef diorama in no time. That doesn’t stop me from wholeheartedly recommending this and other Paleozoo models, which you can buy either direct from Mr. Currie or from Shapeways (though I suspect that if you buy direct, a larger cut goes to the artist).